Whale Bone pier

When AI (Chat GPT) was posed the question:  What is chloride resistance? The following answer was generated;

 “Chloride resistance refers to the ability of a material to withstand the corrosive effects of chloride ions. Chloride ions, commonly found in salts such as sodium chloride (table salt) and calcium chloride, are highly corrosive, especially in environments like marine atmospheres or de-icing salts on roads.” ChatGPT3.5.

 Considering that ChatGPT compiled a reasonable definition, it can be deduced that the subject has been extensively researched, peer reviewed and published.

The leading mechanism of chloride attack is the concentration of the available chlorides exposed to the surface of a material, the higher the concentration, the higher the rate of penetration into the material. Depending on the porosity of the material, the more rapid this attack occurs.

Looking at concrete and more specifically factors undermining concrete durability, chloride attack is, by far, the leading cause of structural deterioration globally. This deterioration necessitates rehabilitation and repair work which costs industry billions of US Dollars annually. Steel reinforced concrete structures are susceptible to chloride attack – chlorides cause an expansion process in steel, ultimately leading to the spalling of concrete.

Chlorides require a ‘carrier’ to permeate concrete and moisture is the most effective carrier, however, for this to be effective the concrete also has to be porous. It is therefore critical to create impermeable concrete.

The most researched, tried and tested system of creating impermeable concrete is the addition of the Penetron® suite of products. To create impermeable concrete the most cost effective Penetron product is their Admixture, this is added to the concrete at the time of batching.  Penetron® also has a slurry product that can be post applied, from the negative side, to existing concrete structures.

Penetron®’s Crystalline system will eliminate the capillaries, inhibiting the penetration of any chlorides and protecting the embedded steel leading to an ultra-durable and chloride resistant concrete.

For more information on the benefits of Penetron®’s suite of products please contact Penetron Africa.